sitologos.xml 25.1 KB
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<TEI xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">
    <teiHeader>
        <fileDesc>
            <titleStmt>
                <title>Description of Greek Documentary Papyri by Textual Content: Declaration of
                    Uninundated Land</title>
                <author corresp="../authority-lists.xml#SF">Susan Fogarty</author>
                <respStmt>
                    <resp>Encoded in TEI P5 by</resp>
                    <name corresp="../authority-lists.xml#EN">Elisa Nury</name>
                </respStmt>
                <funder>
                    <orgName key="SNF">Swiss National Science Foundation</orgName> - <ref
                        target="http://p3.snf.ch/Project-182205">Project 182205</ref>
                </funder>
            </titleStmt>
            <publicationStmt>
                <authority>Grammateus Project</authority>
                <availability>
                    <licence target="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/"
                        >Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)</licence>
                </availability>
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            <sourceDesc>
                <p>Born digital document. Encoded from a Microsoft Word document.</p>
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                <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
                    xmlns:tei="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0" href="../grammateus_taxonomy.xml"/>
            </classDecl>
            <p>This file is encoded to comply with TEI Guidelines P5, Version 4.0.0.
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                    <ref>https://tei-c.org/guidelines/p5/</ref>
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            </p>
        </encodingDesc>
        <profileDesc>
            <langUsage>
                <language ident="lat">Latin</language>
                <language ident="grc">Greek</language>
            </langUsage>
            <textClass>
                <catRef n="type" scheme="#grammateus_taxonomy" target="#gt_os"/>
                <catRef n="subtype" scheme="#grammateus_taxonomy" target="#gt_os_receipt"/>
                <catRef n="variation" scheme="#grammateus_taxonomy" target="#gt_sitologos"/>
            </textClass>
        </profileDesc>
        <revisionDesc>
            <change who="../authority-lists.xml#EN" when="2021-03-02">TEI file created</change>
            <change who="../authority-lists.xml#SF" when="2020-11-20">Word document</change>
        </revisionDesc>
    </teiHeader>
    <text>
        <body>
            <head>Sitologos Receipt</head>
            <p>The <term xml:lang="lat">sitologos</term> was the official in charge of the
                administration of taxes paid in-kind on different categories of land. The office was
                a liturgical one (see <ref type="descr" target="#gt_nomination">Nomination to
                    Liturgy</ref> and <bibl>
                    <author>Lewis</author>
                    <ptr target="gramm:lewis1997"/>
                    <citedRange>45</citedRange>
                </bibl>), and the <term xml:lang="lat">sitologos</term> was responsible for the
                local granary (<term xml:lang="grc">θησαυρός</term>) of a particular area. The <term
                    xml:lang="lat">sitologos</term> received tax grain directly from the threshing
                floors, issued receipts, and provided a regular report to the strategos (see [<ref
                    type="external" target="https://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.oxy;36;2769">16560</ref>]
                and [<ref type="external" target="https://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.mich;11;604"
                    >21360</ref>] for a list of duties, usually performed by a subordinate). For an
                overview of the collection of grain tax see <bibl>
                    <author>Wallace</author>
                    <ptr target="gramm:wallace1938"/>
                    <citedRange>31-46</citedRange>
                </bibl>.</p>
            <p>While the <term xml:lang="lat">sitologos</term> was responsible for this public
                service, there was also a large stock of private grain held in public granaries
                which he administered, enabling <q>giro</q> type transfers into and out of private
                stocks or accounts, rather like a bank. Indeed Orders to Pay addressed to a <term
                    xml:lang="lat">sitologos</term> from a private individual are composed in the
                same way as those addressed to a banker (see <ref type="descr" target="#gt_order"
                    >Order to Pay</ref>). </p>
            <p>This overview contains a description of <term xml:lang="lat">sitologos</term>
                receipts issued for the payment of land taxes, as well as receipts issued for some
                private transactions i.e. <term xml:lang="lat">metrema</term> receipts and <term
                    xml:lang="lat">diastolikon</term> receipts, the latter issued following an
                original order to transfer an amount from one account to another for the payment of
                rent, dues, or other payments. For more information on these private receipts see <bibl>
                    <author>Litinas</author>
                    <ptr target="gramm:litinas2007"/>
                </bibl> with bibliography. Receipts issued by the <term xml:lang="lat"
                    >sitologos</term> for the payment of tax on catoecic land are treated separately
                [see <ref type="anchor" target="#monartabos">monartabos</ref> below]. </p>
            <div type="section" n="1">
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                <head xml:id="structure">Structure</head>
                <p>Taxes on land were assessed according to the type of land and the size of the
                    harvest. Official tax receipts carry the date of issue at the beginning of the
                    document followed by a statement from the <term xml:lang="lat">sitologoi</term>,
                    usually with the main verb in the first person plural, e.g. [<ref
                        type="internal" target="12198.xml">12198</ref>, <ref type="internal"
                        target="12333.xml">12333</ref>]. </p>
                <p>[date]</p>
                <p>[<hi rend="italic">names</hi> &lt;nom.&gt; (<term xml:lang="grc">σιτολόγοι καὶ
                        μέτοχοι</term>)] <q><term xml:lang="lat">sitologoi</term> and
                    associates</q></p>
                <p><term xml:lang="grc">μεμετρήμεθα... πυροῦ μέτρῳ δημοσίῳ</term>
                    <q>we have received by public measure</q></p>
                <p>[year of assessment]</p>
                <p>[for <hi rend="italic">name</hi> &lt;dat.&gt; (<hi rend="italic"
                    >taxpayer</hi>)]</p>
                <p>[<hi rend="italic">amount</hi> &lt;acc.&gt;] written first in words and then
                    numerically. </p>
                <p>Sometimes the <term xml:lang="lat">sitologos</term> will add a statement of
                    transmission: [<hi rend="italic">name</hi> &lt;nom&gt; <term xml:lang="grc"
                        >σιτολόγος</term>] <term xml:lang="grc">μεμέτρημαι ὡς πρόκειται</term>
                    <q>I have received as stated</q> [<ref type="internal" target="11256.xml"
                        >11256</ref>].</p>
                <p>Another form of the main verb can be seen occasionally e.g. [<ref type="internal"
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                        target="15078.xml">15078</ref>] <term xml:lang="grc"
                    >ἐμετρή[θ]ησαν</term>.</p>
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                <p>Sitologos receipts are also composed as objective statements in the form of a
                        <ref type="descr" target="#gt_syngr">syngraphe</ref>, with an infinitive
                    construction e.g. [<ref type="internal" target="3124.xml">3124</ref>, <ref
                        type="internal" target="22229.xml">22229</ref>,<ref type="internal"
                        target="43263.xml">43263</ref>]. [date] [<term xml:lang="grc"
                        >ὁμολογεῖ</term>...<term xml:lang="grc">μεμετρῆ(σθαι)</term>] [<term
                        xml:lang="grc">παρὰ</term><hi rend="italic">name</hi> &lt;gen.&gt; (<hi
                        rend="italic">taxpayer</hi>)] [<hi rend="italic">amount</hi> &lt;acc.&gt;]
                    written first in words and then numerically. An <term xml:lang="grc"
                        >ἀντιγραφεύς</term> or clerk signs to say that he has checked the amount and
                    adds a [date] at the end.</p>
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                <p>Receipts issued for private transactions (<term xml:lang="lat">metrema</term>
                    receipts) can be distinguished by the use of the verb in the third person <term
                        xml:lang="grc">μεμέ(τρηται)</term> e.g. [<ref type="internal"
                        target="78619.xml">78619</ref>], although the abbreviation has been resolved
                    variously as <term xml:lang="grc">μεμέ(τρηνται)</term> and <term xml:lang="grc"
                        >μεμέ(τρηκεν)</term>; on this see <bibl>
                        <author>Litinas</author>
                        <ptr target="gramm:litinas2007"/>
                        <citedRange>196 n.3, 197 n.7</citedRange>
                    </bibl>. There is usually no date of issue for this receipt, but there is always
                    mention made of the year of the harvest from which the amount is to be
                    taken.</p>
                <p><term xml:lang="grc">μεμέτρηται εἰς τὸ δημόσιον πυροῦ γενήματος</term> [date of
                    harvest] <q>measured into the public granary from the crop of year x</q></p>
                <p><term xml:lang="grc">διὰ σιτολόγος</term> [<hi rend="italic">name</hi>
                        &lt;gen.&gt;][<hi rend="italic">place</hi> &lt;gen.&gt; (<hi rend="italic"
                        >village/district</hi>)] <q>through the <term xml:lang="lat"
                            >sitologos</term>
                        <hi rend="italic">N</hi> of (village)</q></p>
                <p>[<hi rend="italic">name</hi> &lt;nom.&gt; (<hi rend="italic">depositor</hi>)]</p>
                <p>[<hi rend="italic">amount</hi> &lt;acc.&gt;]</p>
                <p>[<hi rend="italic">name</hi> &lt;nom&gt; <term xml:lang="grc">σιτολόγος</term>]
                        <term xml:lang="grc">σεσημείωμαι</term>
                    <q>I <hi rend="italic">N</hi>
                        <term xml:lang="lat">sitologos</term> have signed</q>.</p>
                <p>Other receipts are structured around the verb <term xml:lang="grc"
                        >διαστέλλω</term>. These <term xml:lang="lat">diastolikon</term> receipts
                    record a transfer of grain from privately held stocks in the public granary;
                    they follow an original order to pay addressed to the <term xml:lang="lat"
                        >sitologos</term> (see <ref type="descr" target="#gt_order">Order to
                        Pay</ref>). They are almost identical in structure to the <term
                        xml:lang="lat">metrema</term> receipts, but record a (virtual) transfer of
                    grain rather than a payment, and name both the payer and payee.</p>
                <p><term xml:lang="grc">διεστάλ(η)/διέσταλ(ται) πυροῦ γενήματος</term> [date of
                    harvest] <q>transferred from the crop of year x</q></p>
                <p><term xml:lang="grc">διὰ σιτολόγος</term> [<hi rend="italic">name</hi>
                        &lt;gen.&gt;][<hi rend="italic">place</hi> &lt;gen.&gt; (<hi rend="italic"
                        >village/district</hi>)] <q>through the <term xml:lang="lat"
                            >sitologos</term>
                        <hi rend="italic">N</hi> of (village)</q></p>
                <p><term xml:lang="grc">ἀπὸ θέματος</term> [<hi rend="italic">name</hi> &lt;gen.&gt;
                        (<hi rend="italic">payer</hi>)] [to <hi rend="italic">name</hi> &lt;dat.&gt;
                        (<hi rend="italic">payee</hi>)] <q>from the deposit of <hi rend="italic"
                            >N</hi> to <hi rend="italic">N</hi></q></p>
                <p>[<hi rend="italic">amount</hi> &lt;acc.&gt;]</p>
                <p>[<hi rend="italic">name</hi> &lt;nom&gt; <term xml:lang="grc">σιτολόγος</term>]
                        <term xml:lang="grc">σεσημείωμαι</term>
                    <q>I <hi rend="italic">N</hi>
                        <term xml:lang="lat">sitologos</term> have signed</q>.</p>
            </div>
            <div type="section" n="2">
                <head xml:id="format">Format</head>
                <p>All shapes of papyri are found: <term xml:lang="lat">pagina</term> format e.g.
                        [<ref type="internal" target="11653.xml">11653</ref>, <ref type="internal"
                        target="10210.xml">10210</ref>, <ref type="internal" target="22229.xml"
                        >22229</ref>], <term xml:lang="lat">transversa charta</term> e.g. [<ref
                        type="internal" target="11256.xml">11256</ref>, <ref type="internal"
                        target="150.xml">150</ref><ref type="internal" target="4.xml">4</ref><ref
                        type="internal" target="8.xml">8</ref>], and squarish e.g. [<ref
                        type="internal" target="11732.xml">11732</ref>, <ref type="internal"
                        target="9329.xml">9329</ref>]. The writing appears to be predominantly along
                    horizontal fibres, with some exceptions [<ref type="internal" target="15943.xml"
                        >15943</ref> (<term xml:lang="lat">transversa charta</term>)], [<ref
                        type="internal" target="11732.xml">11732</ref> (squarish)], and [<ref
                        type="internal" target="11812.xml">11812</ref> (<term xml:lang="lat"
                        >pagina</term>)]. The sheet with the single receipt of [<ref type="internal"
                        target="3124.xml">3124</ref>] has a large left- hand margin to which is
                    attached part of another blank sheet, and the same is apparent at the right-hand
                    edge. Another receipt also has a blank sheet attached to the left-hand edge
                        [<ref type="internal" target="9562.xml">9562</ref>], and there are <term
                        xml:lang="lat">kolleseis</term> visible on [<ref type="internal"
                        target="20672.xml">20672</ref>] and [<ref type="internal" target="78622.xml"
                        >78622</ref>].</p>
            </div>
            <div type="section" n="3">
                <head xml:id="layout">Layout</head>
                <p>The text of these receipts is usually laid out on the sheet in a single block,
                    often with an enlarged first letter [e.g. <term xml:lang="grc">ἔτους</term>:
                        <ref type="internal" target="11732.xml">11732</ref>, <ref type="internal"
                        target="9314.xml">9314</ref>; <term xml:lang="grc">διεστάλ(ησαν)</term>:
                        <ref type="internal" target="16905.xml">16905</ref>] and there is little use
                    of <hi rend="italic">ekthesis</hi> or <hi rend="italic">eisthesis</hi>.
                    Occasionally the statement of transmission is separated from the main text [<ref
                        type="internal" target="9513.xml">9513</ref>], or written in <term
                        xml:lang="lat">ekthesis</term> [<ref type="internal" target="11265.xml"
                        >11265</ref>]. Often there is a large bottom margin e.g. [<ref
                        type="internal" target="10210.xml">10210</ref>, <ref type="internal"
                        target="12199.xml">12199</ref>, <ref type="internal" target="11694.xml"
                        >11694</ref>].</p>
                <p>There can be more than one receipt on a single sheet: [<ref type="internal"
                        target="11674.xml">11674</ref>] has three receipts in a single column, each
                    evenly spaced apart; [<ref type="internal" target="78622.xml">78622</ref>]
                    carries 10 receipts in two columns, also evenly spaced apart, written by seven
                    different hands. The second column of [<ref type="internal" target="9105.xml"
                        >9105</ref>] records a money payment and is narrower than the first column,
                    a characteristic noted in letters of more than one column (see <bibl>
                        <ptr target="gramm:sarri2018"/>
                        <author>Sarri</author>
                        <citedRange>112</citedRange>
                    </bibl>).</p>
            </div>
            <div type="section">
                <head xml:id="monartabos">Receipt for tax on catoecic land at the rate of one artaba
                    per aroura (<term xml:lang="grc">μονάρταβος γῆ</term>)</head>
                <p>The category of cleruchic or catoecic land, i.e. plots (<term xml:lang="lat"
                        >kleroi</term>) attributed to military settlers in the Ptolemaic period, was
                    still in existence in the Roman period, although it bore no relation to the army
                    anymore. It retained, however, a taxation rate distinct from that applied to
                    other categories of land. In some cases, especially in the Arsinoite nome,
                    catoecic land was described as <term xml:lang="lat">monartabos</term>, i.e.
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                        <q>(taxed at the rate of) one artaba (per aroura)</q>
                    <bibl>
                        <author>Kramer et al.</author>
                        <ptr target="gramm:kramer1982"/>
                        <citedRange>196</citedRange>
                    </bibl>. In modern editions, the corresponding tax is sometimes referred to as
                        <term xml:lang="lat">monartabia</term> [e.g. <ref type="internal"
                        target="15932.xml">15932</ref>, following <bibl>
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                        <author>Wallace</author>
                        <ptr target="gramm:wallace1938"/>
                        <citedRange>13</citedRange>
                    </bibl>], but the word is nowhere attested in papyri, which carry only <term
                        xml:lang="lat">monartabos</term> (scil. <term xml:lang="lat">kleros</term>)
                        [<ref type="internal" target="17391.xml">17391</ref> lines 29 and 31; <ref
                        type="internal" target="17008.xml">17008</ref> line 18] or <term
                        xml:lang="lat">artabeia</term> [<ref type="internal" target="10941.xml"
                        >10941</ref>; <ref type="internal" target="11549.xml">11549</ref>; see <bibl>
                        <author>Schubert</author>
                        <ptr target="gramm:schubert1990"/>
                        <citedRange>131-132</citedRange>
                    </bibl>. Therefore, it seems preferable to refer here to the tax on catoecic
                    land at the rate of one artaba per aroura.</p>
                <p>For the most part, catoecic land consisted of wheat land. <term xml:lang="lat"
                        >Sitologoi</term> produced many kinds of receipts, but only a few, scattered
                    through the I-II CE, pertain to <term xml:lang="lat">monartabos ge</term>: four
                    of them come from the Arsinoite nome, and a fifth from the Herakleopolite nome.
                    For other types of tax on catoecic land see <ref type="descr"
                        target="catoecic.xml">Tax on Catoecic Land: <term xml:lang="grc">τέλος
                            καταλοχισμῶν</term></ref></p>
                <div type="subsection" n="1">
                    <head xml:id="monartabos_structure">Structure</head>
                    <p>Receipts from the Arsinoite and Herakleopolite nomes do not display the same
                        structure: those from the Arsinoite are written in the form of a statement
                        from the <term xml:lang="lat">sitologoi</term>; the only remaining
                        Herakleopolite receipt displays an opening address in letter form.</p>
                    <p>Arsinoite nome [<ref type="internal" target="9349.xml">9349</ref>, <ref
                            type="internal" target="9430.xml">9430</ref>]:</p>
                    <p>[date]</p>
                    <p>[<hi rend="italic">name</hi> &lt;nom.&gt; (<hi rend="italic"
                        >sitologoi</hi>)]</p>
                    <p><term xml:lang="grc">μεμετρήμεθα ἀπὸ τῶν γενημάτων τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἔτους</term>
                        <q>we have received payment in kind from the crop of the same year</q></p>
                    <p>[<hi rend="italic">tax</hi>] [<hi rend="italic">village</hi>]</p>
                    <p>[for <hi rend="italic">name</hi> &lt;dat.&gt; (<hi rend="italic"
                            >taxpayer</hi>)]</p>
                    <p>[<hi rend="italic">amount</hi> &lt;acc.&gt;]</p>
                    <p>The signature of a <term xml:lang="lat">sitologos</term> may be added at the
                        end [<ref type="internal" target="14446.xml">14446</ref>].</p>
                    <p>Herakleopolite nome [<ref type="internal" target="23281.xml"
                        >23281</ref>]:</p>
                    <p>[from <hi rend="italic">name</hi> &lt;nom.&gt; (<hi rend="italic"
                            >sitologoi</hi>)] [to <hi rend="italic">name</hi> &lt;dat.&gt; (<hi
                            rend="italic">taxpayer</hi>)] <term xml:lang="grc">χαίρειν</term></p>
                    <p><term xml:lang="grc">μεμετρήμεθα εἰς τὸ δημόσιον</term> (<term xml:lang="grc"
                            >διά λόγου</term> [name &lt;gen.&gt; (<hi rend="italic">village</hi>)])
                            <q>we have received payment in kind to the public treasure (through the
                            account of (<hi rend="italic">village</hi>))</q></p>
                    <p>[tax]</p>
                    <p><term xml:lang="grc">εἰς ἀρίθμησιν</term>
                        <q>for the reckoning</q> [<hi rend="italic">period, including months and
                            regnal year</hi>]</p>
                    <p>[<hi rend="italic">amount</hi> &lt;acc.&gt;]</p>
                </div>
                <div type="subsection" n="2">
                    <head xml:id="monartabos_format">Format</head>
                    <p>The preserved receipts do not reflect a consistent practice regarding format.
                        There seems to be a preference for the <term xml:lang="lat">pagina</term>
                        shape [<ref type="internal" target="9430.xml">9430</ref>, <ref
                            type="internal" target="9349.xml">9349</ref>, <ref type="internal"
                            target="23281.xml">23281</ref>], but one receipt displays a squarish
                        shape [<ref type="internal" target="14446.xml">14446</ref>].</p>
                    <p>The same applies to fibre direction: contrary to the usual practice of
                        writing in the direction of fibres, [<ref type="internal" target="9430.xml"
                            >9430</ref>] was initially cut from a roll in the shape of a horizontal
                        rectangle, then turned at a right angle in order to be used in the <term
                            xml:lang="lat">pagina</term> format (there is a horizontal <term
                            xml:lang="lat">kollesis</term> across the middle of the sheet), with the
                        writing at a right angle in relation to the fibres.</p>
                </div>
                <div n="3" type="subsection">
                    <head xml:id="monartabos_layout">Layout</head>
                    <p>Here again, the preserved examples show little consistency. The sheet may
                        contain one [<ref type="internal" target="9349.xml">9349</ref>] or several
                            [<ref type="internal" target="9430.xml">9430</ref>] receipts; and the
                        text may cover the whole surface of the sheet [<ref type="internal"
                            target="14446.xml">14446</ref>], or only a smaller area, leaving a blank
                        space before and after the text [<ref type="internal" target="9349.xml"
                            >9349</ref>]. A left margin is sometimes provided [<ref type="internal"
                            target="9430.xml">9430</ref>, <ref type="internal" target="14446.xml"
                            >14446</ref>]. When a date appears at the beginning of the text, the
                        initial <term xml:lang="lat">epsilon</term> of <term xml:lang="grc"
                            >ἔτους</term> is enlarged, following a frequent practice.</p>
                </div>
            </div>
        </body>
    </text>
</TEI>