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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<TEI xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">
    <teiHeader>
        <fileDesc>
            <titleStmt>
                <title>Description of Greek Documentary Papyri: Letter of Reccomendation</title>
                <author corresp="../authority-lists.xml#SF">
                    <forename>Susan</forename>
                    <surname>Fogarty</surname>
                </author>
                <respStmt>
                    <resp>Encoded in TEI P5 by</resp>
                    <name corresp="../authority-lists.xml#EN">
                        <forename>Elisa</forename>
                        <surname>Nury</surname>
                    </name>
                </respStmt>
                <funder>
                    <orgName key="SNF">Swiss National Science Foundation</orgName> - <ref target="http://p3.snf.ch/Project-182205">Project 182205</ref>
                </funder>
            </titleStmt>
            <publicationStmt>
                <authority>Grammateus Project</authority>
                <availability>
                    <licence target="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/">Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)</licence>
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                <p>Born digital document. Encoded from a Microsoft Word document.</p>
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                <xi:include xmlns:tei="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0" xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="../grammateus_taxonomy.xml"/>
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            </classDecl>
            <p>This file is encoded to comply with TEI Guidelines P5, Version 4.0.0.
                    <ref>https://tei-c.org/guidelines/p5/</ref>
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            <langUsage>
                <language ident="lat">Latin</language>
                <language ident="grc">Greek</language>
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                <catRef n="subtype" scheme="#grammateus_taxonomy" target="#gt_letterPrivate"/>
                <catRef n="variation" scheme="#grammateus_taxonomy" target="#gt_rec"/>
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        <revisionDesc>
            <change who="../authority-lists.xml#EN" when="2021-04-01">TEI file created</change>
            <change who="../authority-lists.xml#SF" when="2021-01-30">Word document</change>
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    </teiHeader>
    <text>
        <body>
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            <head>Letter of Recommendation</head>
            <head type="subtitle">
                <term xml:lang="grc">ἐπιστολὴ συστατική</term>
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            </head>
            <p>The descriptions <q>Letter of Recommendation</q> and <q>Letter of Introduction</q>
                are interchangeable in the literature on the subject. This type of letter is written
                to recommend or formally introduce one person to another; it can be used to
                recommend someone in either a private or official capacity e.g. [<ref type="internal" target="1933.xml">1933</ref> 254 BCE, Arsinoite nome]
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                recommending a friend, or e.g. [<ref type="internal" target="3656.xml">3656</ref> 113
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                BCE, Tebtunis] introducing a substitute for a village meeting. Usually the bearer of
                the letter himself is recommended to the recipient [<ref type="internal" target="45063.xml">45063</ref> 135-136 CE, Karanis; <ref type="internal" target="28903.xml">28903</ref> II-III CE, Oxyrhynchus]. Some letters ask the
                recipient to introduce the bearer to another person e.g. [<ref target="705.xml" type="internal">705</ref> 257 BCE, Alexandria].</p>
            <p>The chronological range stretches from III BCE into the IV CE after which time this
                variation was appropriated by the church: letters of recommendation with added
                Christian phraseology were carried by clergy when travelling as proof of their good
                standing – see <bibl>
                    <author>Teeter</author>
                    <ptr target="gramm:teeter1997"/>
                </bibl> on Christian letters of recommendation and similarly phrased letters of
                peace. For an in-depth investigation of the letter of recommendation see <bibl>
                    <author>Kim</author>
                    <ptr target="gramm:kim1972"/>
                </bibl>; his list <bibl>
                    <author>Kim</author>
                    <ptr target="gramm:kim1972"/>
                    <citedRange>146-149</citedRange>
                </bibl> should be supplemented by <bibl>
                    <author>Cotton</author>
                    <ptr target="gramm:cotton1981"/>
                    <citedRange>53-54</citedRange>
                </bibl> and <bibl>
                    <author>Vergados</author>
                    <ptr target="gramm:vergados2011"/>
                    <citedRange>52</citedRange>
                </bibl>.</p>
            <div type="section" n="1">
                <head xml:id="structure">Structure</head>
                <p>The opening formula is as for <ref type="descr" target="#gt_letterPrivate">private letters</ref>, see <bibl>
                        <author>Kim</author>
                        <ptr target="gramm:kim1972"/>
                        <citedRange>10-21</citedRange>
                    </bibl>; superlatives are also found but <term xml:lang="grc">γλυκυτάτος</term>
                    in this context is unattested.</p>
                <p>Kim breaks down the main section of the letter of recommendation into the
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                    following categories:
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                <list type="unordered">
                    <item>Identification formula <bibl>
                            <author>Kim</author>
                            <ptr target="gramm:kim1972"/>
                            <citedRange>37-53</citedRange>
                        </bibl> – the person being recommended is named and further identified e.g.
                            [<ref type="internal" target="1429.xml">1429</ref> 257 BCE,
                        Philadelphia] <term xml:lang="grc">Χαρμῖνος ὁ τὴν ἐπιστολήν σοι ἀποδιδούς
                            ἐστιν Ἡρακ[λείδου] υἱὸς τοῦ ἐκ τῆς ἱερᾶς πρωιρέως</term>
                        <q>Charminos who gives you this letter is the son of Herakleides bow-man of
                            the holy ship</q>; [<ref type="internal" target="47208.xml">47208</ref>
                        19 CE, Philadelphia] <term xml:lang="grc">Εἰσίδωρος...ἐ̣σ̣τίν μου ἐκ τῆς
                            οἰκίας</term>
                        <q>Isidoros...is from my household</q>.</item>
                    <item>Background <bibl>
                            <author>Kim</author>
                            <ptr target="gramm:kim1972"/>
                            <citedRange>53-60</citedRange>
                        </bibl> – an explanatory statement detailing why the bearer is being
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                        commended to the recipient e.g. [<ref type="internal" target="1429.xml">1429</ref>] <term xml:lang="grc">ἀφέσταλται δὲ ὑπό τε τοῦ
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                            πατρός</term>
                        <q>he has been sent by his father</q>; [<ref target="https://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.cair.zen;2;59192" type="external">838</ref> 255 BCE, Alexandria] <term xml:lang="grc">βούλε]τ̣αι οὖν
                            κα̣[ὶ αὐ]τὸς ὁ νεανίσκος ἐκεῖ πράττε[ι]ν τ[ι]</term>
                        <q>the young man would like to find some work there</q>.</item>
                    <item>Request formula <bibl>
                            <author>Kim</author>
                            <ptr target="gramm:kim1972"/>
                            <citedRange>65-77</citedRange>
                        </bibl> – there are three possible clauses:<list type="ordered">
                            <item>
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                                    <term xml:lang="grc">καλῶς (ἂν) οὖν ποιήσεις</term> + participle:
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                                e.g. [<ref type="internal" target="1933.xml">1933</ref> 254 BCE,
                                Arsinoite nome] <term xml:lang="grc">καλῶς ἂν οὖν ποιήσαις
                                    ἐπιμέλειαν ποιούμενος αὐτοῦ</term>
                                <q>be kind enough then to take care of him</q>.</item>
                            <item>
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                                    <term xml:lang="grc">χαριεῖ μοι</term> + participle: e.g. [<ref type="internal" target="1429.xml">1429</ref> 257 BCE,
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                                Philadelphia] <term xml:lang="grc">χαριεῖ δή μοι σπουδάσας τε ὅπως ὅ
                                    τι τάχος λάβηι</term>
                                <q>you will do me a favour then if you help him get it as soon as
                                    possible</q>.</item>
                            <item>
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                                    <term xml:lang="grc">ἐρωτῶ σε ἔχειν αὐτόν</term> + a form of <term xml:lang="grc">συνίστημι</term>: e.g. [<ref target="https://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.oxy;4;787" type="external">20447</ref> 16 CE, Oxyrhynchus] <term xml:lang="grc">ἐρωτῶ σε
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                                    οὖν ἔχειν αὐτὸν συνεσταμένον</term>
                                <q>I ask you to have him introduced (to you)</q>. This periphrastic
                                construction with συνίστημι is found only in letters of
                                recommendation. </item>
                        </list>
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                        </item>
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                </list>
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                </p>
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                <p>This request is often followed by the purpose of the request introduced by <term xml:lang="grc">ὅπως</term> or <term xml:lang="grc">ἵνα</term> e.g. [<ref type="internal" target="2293.xml">2293</ref> 260 BCE, Alexandria] <term xml:lang="grc">ὅπως πλέωσι</term>
                    <q>so that he may sail</q>, [<ref type="internal" target="705.xml">705</ref> 257
                    BCE, Philadelphia] <term xml:lang="grc">ἵνα ἐντύχηι</term>
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                    <q>so that he might meet...</q>, [<ref type="internal" target="32145.xml">32145</ref> ] <term xml:lang="grc">ἵνα μήτις αὐτοῖς ἐπήρειαν ποιήσι</term>
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                    <q>so that they may not be mistreated</q>. </p>
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                <p>The closing formula remains the same as for <ref type="descr" target="#gt_letterPrivate">private letters</ref>; [<ref type="internal" target="19590.xml">19590</ref>] written to a strategos carries an extended
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                    closing greeting in the hand of the author <term xml:lang="grc">[ἐ]ρρῶσθαί σε
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                        εὔχομαι, ἄδελφε τειμι[ώτ]ατε</term>. Sometimes a date is added e.g. [<ref type="internal" target="2293.xml">2293</ref> , <ref type="internal" target="1933.xml">1933</ref> ; <ref type="internal" target="23378.xml">23378</ref>]. </p>
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            </div>
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            <div type="section" n="2">
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                <head xml:id="format">Format</head>
                <p>The format of letters of recommendation is the same as for any private letter. A
                    mid-II CE example is rather narrow [<ref target="https://papyri.info/ddbdp/basp;48;54" type="external">132731</ref>]
                    (H. 18.1 x W. 6.7cm). Although they rarely survive, it is likely these letters
                    carried a seal e.g. [<ref target="https://papyri.info/ddbdp/sb;3;7178" type="external">1912</ref> 243-242 BCE, Herakleopolite nome].</p>
            </div>
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            <div type="section" n="3">
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                <head xml:id="layout">Layout</head>
                <p>Examples of the common features include: </p>
                <list type="unordered">
                    <item>[<ref type="internal" target="702.xml">702</ref> , <ref type="internal" target="705.xml">705</ref>
                        <term xml:lang="lat">transversa charta</term>; <ref target="706.xml" type="internal">706</ref> 257 BCE, Alexandria, <term xml:lang="lat">pagina</term> format] examples written as a single block of text with
                        the closing formula separated from the main body, some with a date added
                            [<ref type="internal" target="3656.xml">3656</ref> ; <ref target="1933.xml" type="internal">1933</ref>];</item>
                    <item>[<ref target="5566.xml" type="internal">5566</ref> 51 CE; <ref type="internal" target="23378.xml">23378</ref>] are examples with a
                        large top and bottom margin;</item>
                    <item>[<ref type="internal" target="1758.xml">1758</ref> 245 BCE Arsinoite nome;
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                            <ref type="internal" target="3656.xml">3656</ref>] are letters with
                        evenly spaced lines, but in [<ref type="internal" target="45063.xml">45063</ref>] the scribe ran out of space.</item>
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                </list>
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                <p>A more careful layout can be seen in letters from the archive of the <term xml:lang="lat">strategos</term> Apollonios: [<ref type="internal" target="19590.xml">19590</ref>] in <term xml:lang="lat">pagina</term>
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                    format, has an enlarged first letter, with the first and third lines in <term xml:lang="lat">ekthesis</term> to the the rest of the text, along with some
                    scribal flourishes – note the enlarged final iota of <term xml:lang="grc">Ἀπολλωνίωι</term> at the end of line 1. Another from the same archive [<ref target="https://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.brem;;6" type="external">19591</ref>]
                        (<term xml:lang="lat">transversa charta</term> with horizontal fibres) is
                    written by a different scribe but also carefully laid out. Occasionally the
                    recommendation may be accompanied by another document: after the date in [<ref target="https://papyri.info/ddbdp/psi;5;520" type="external">2142</ref>
                    250-249 BCE, Philadelphia] there follows an invitation to come to Philadelphia.
                    The recommendation in [<ref target="https://papyri.info/ddbdp/psi;4;383" type="external">2067</ref> 248-247 BCE, Philadelphia] is the precursor to a
                    petition to the king (<term xml:lang="grc">ἔντευξις</term>) written by the same
                    scribe on the same sheet.</p>
            </div>
        </body>
    </text>
</TEI>